During the 19th century Britain was revolutionized by the industrial revolution. In 1801, at the time of the first poll, only about 20% of the population located in towns. By 1851 the number had raised to over 50%. By 1881 about two-thirds of the population lived in burns. The 19th century, also introduced as the Victorian Era, initiated in an era of unheard-of prosperity to Britain. This article shows on 19th-century Britain society, its social values and class divisions, the Industrial Revolution, and the British Empire.
Furthermore in 1801 the more of the population still performed in agriculture or compared industries. Most goods were made by hand and very many craftsmen served on their own with maybe a laborer and an apprentice. By the late 19th century factories were commonplace and most goods were manufactured by machine. The industrial revolution shaped an unusual demand for female and child labor. Children had always worked with their parents but before the 19th century they mostly worked part-time. In the new cloth factories, women and children were usually made to work very long hours (often 12 hours a day or even longer).
The government was conscious of the problem and in 1819 they gave an act that made it unauthorized for children under 9 to work in cotton mills. However the act required ‘teeth’ as there were no factory investigators to check the mills.
Another Act was passed in 1833 but this time investigators were appointed. Children under 9 were banned from functioning in textile mills. Children aged 9 to 13 were not allowed to work for more than 12 hours a day or a total of more than 48 hours a week. Children aged 13 to 18 must not work for more than 69 hours a week. Furthermore, nobody under 18 was allowed to work at night (from 8.30 pm to 5.30 am). In 1844 another act prohibited women from working more than 12 hours a day (although it also shortened the minimum age for working in a mill to 8). Then in 1847 women and children were banned from working more than 10 hours a day in textile factories.
Early 19th Century Britain
- The early 19th century was a stage of political and social tension in Britain. In the early 19th century a group of Evangelical Christians called the Clapham Sect were effective in politics. The offensive for an end to slavery and inhuman sports. They build up their name because so many of them located in Clapham.
- Then on 11 May 1812 a man named John Bellingham shot Tory prime minister Spencer Perceval. He was the only British prime minister ever to be assassinated.
- Bellingham was a solitary psychopath but in 1820 there was a scenario to kill the whole committee. Arthur Thistlewood led the Cato Street Sedition but the conspirators were arrested on 23 February 1820. Thistlewood and 4 of his companions were hanged.
- In 1811-1816 textile laborers in the Midlands and the north of England, damaged machines worry they would make unemployment. The wreckers were called Luddites and if arrested they were likely to be hanged.
- In March 1817 textile workers from Manchester attempted to march to London to petition the Prince Ruler. They were called blanketeers because many of them brought blankets. However even though the march was nonviolent the blanketeers were paused by soldiers at Stockport.
- Then on 16 August 1819 about 60,000 people crowded at St Peter’s Field in Manchester to attend a man named Henry Hunt. Even though the crowd was unprotected and the peaceful the jurisdictions delivered in soldiers. As a result 11 people were killed and hundreds were injured. Afterward people called the event ‘The Peterloo Massacre’ in grim ridicule of Waterloo.
- In 1830 farm laborers in Kent and Sussex damaged agricultural appliance worrying it would cause unemployment. The riots were called the Swing Riots because a man named Captain Swing probably, led them. As a result of the riots 4 men were punished death and 52 were brought to Australia.
- In 1834, 6 farm laborers in Tolpuddle, Dorset tried to form a trade union. However they were litigated for making illegal oaths. (Not for setting up a union, which was legal). They were punished for transportation to Australia. The case induced an outcry and they turned to Britain in 1838.
Timeline of Victorian Britain/ “Victorian Era”
- June 20, 1837: Queen Victoria receives the crown at the age of 18. The granddaughter of King George III, her father expired when she was just 8 months old, and her three uncles also expire, putting her first in line as the crown princess to the seat.
- July 25, 1837: The first electric telegraph is sent between English inventor William Fothergill Cooke and scientist Charles Wheatstone, who went on to establish The Electric Telegraph Company.
- Aug. 1, 1834: The British empire wipes out slavery, and more than 800,000 servants in the British Caribbean are freed. The government provides damages to slave owners, but nothing to servants.
- May 8, 1838: The People’s Settlement, the result of a political and social reform protest movement, calls for a more constitutional system including six points: the right to vote for men age 21 and older; no wealth qualification to run for Parliament; yearly elections; equal portrayal; payment for representative of Parliament; and vote by secret ballot.
The entryway to the locomotive engine house during the manufacture of the London & Birmingham Railway. The entryway to the locomotive engine house during the construction of the London & Birmingham Railway.
- Sept. 17, 1838: The first modern railroad line, the London-Birmingham Railway, initiates, introducing the steam-powered railway development and revolutionizing travel.
- May 1, 1840: The Penny Black, the world’s first postage stamp auctioned for one penny, is delivered in Britain, marking a profile figure of Queen Victoria. More than 70 million letters are posted within the next year, a count tripled in two years. It’s soon photocopied in other countries, and the stamp is run for 40 years.
- Feb. 10, 1840: Queen Victoria weds Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, her first cousin. As queen, she was the one to propose. During their 17 years of the wedding (until Albert expired of typhoid in 1861) the couple had nine children.
- Dec. 19, 1843: Charles Dickens, one of the span’s grandest authors, puts out A Christmas Carol. Other works from the author during this period: Oliver Twist, Great Expectations, David Copperfield and Nicholas Nickleby, among others.
- September 1845: Ireland’s potato crop begins to rot, producing the four-year Irish Potato Famine, also identified as the Great Hunger, which leads to 1 million deaths and caused 1 million people to migrate from the country, settling in different cities throughout North America and Great Britain.
- May 1, 1851: The brainchild of Prince Albert, the Great Carnival opens in London’s Crystal Palace, with 10,000-plus people exhibiting the world’s technological phenomenons – from false teeth to farm machinery to telescopes. Six million visitors visit what would become the first World’s Fair, before it closes in October.
- Dec. 24, 1853: The Vaccination Act makes it compulsory for children born after Aug. 1, 1853, to be vaccinated against smallpox. Parents failing to comply are fined or imprisoned.
- March 28, 1854: France and Britain declare war on Russia, launching the Crimean War, which largely inundates the shelter of the rights of minority Christians in the Ottoman Empire. History’s most famous nurse, Florence Nightingale, helps lower the death count by two-thirds by upgrading unhealthy conditions.
- Nov. 24, 1859: The contentious On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin, is put out, showing his theory of natural selection and querying the theory of creation.
- Dec. 9, 1868: Liberal William Gladstone beats Traditionalist Benjamin Disraeli to become prime minister, a position he held for four times. His legacy includes reform for Ireland, settling an elementary education program, and appointing secret ballot voting.
- March 7, 1876: Scotsman Alexander Graham Bell has rewarded a patent on his invention of the telephone, and, three days after, famously makes the first phone call to Thomas Watson, his appointee.
- May 1, 1876: India, which has been under British rule since 1858, admits Queen Victoria empress, under the guidance of Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli.
- Aug.-Nov. 1888: An unidentified killer, named Jack the Ripper, murders and defaces five prostitutes in London.
- Jan. 22, 1901: Queen Victoria expires on the Isle of Wight at age 81, finishing the Victorian Era. She is replaced by Edward VII, her eldest son, who governed until his death in 1910.
Culture And Art in “Victorian Era”
- More approach made British cultural productions more important. Not only did they confess much about the society from which they appeared, but during the Victorian era Britain was the cultural capital of the English-speaking division (including the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand).
- Victorian appearance and print culture were rich and varied, a blend of melodrama, spectacle, and morals. “An Anti-Idiotic Entertainment Company” from The Wilds of London by James Greenwood, presenting an imaginary music hall called the Grampian, lithograph by Alfred Concanen, 1874.
- Mander and Mitchinson Theatre Collection, London Theatre thrived. Melodrama—which featured evil villains, righteous heroines, and intricate plots – was the very important and most popular category early on; later, emotion drama became popular.
- Even more popular were music halls, which displayed varied programs of singing, dancing, sketches, and more; these appeared in the 1850s, and by the 1870s there were hundreds across Britain, some seating thousands of people. Music-halls brought people of all classes.
- Print culture was also large and disparate, subsidize by relatively high proficiency rates. There were hundreds of magazines and newspapers available at ever low-cost prices.
- The 1880s saw the evolution of “the New Journalism,” which attracted readers with pieces on violent crimes and crimes in high society.
- Novels were other key aspects of Victorian print culture. By mid-century, Britons of all domains could afford and read novels. Some were targeted at highly knowledgeable and prosperous people, others at less-educated readers looking for engaging and astonishing stories.
- Penny dreadfuls and sensation novels, seen at their best in the art of Wilkie Collins, excited their readers. Victorian novels were often largely long, with the troublesome stories (often focused on marriages) and many characters. Many, specifically those by Charles Dickens, are still read today.
Society in the Victorian Era
- These social diversities propelled a series of far-reaching renovate in the towns and cities that led to extraordinary changes. generosity and charitable giving also became a part of the movement towards developing society and lowering the inequalities in education, health, and employment.
- Although slums, poverty, and desperation did not cease to exist, the Victorian period was one that set and achieved new measures of cultured urban life including a system of local self-government.
- Public constructions also became more commonplace during the period with Victorians using them to highlight accomplishments as a way of promoting civic dignity – libraries, wash-houses, and swimming baths were all funded as part of a conviction to provide working people with the means to improve themselves.
- Victorian Britain’s remarkable prosperity brought actual comfort and security to a far greater ratio of the population than ever before. Supplies of housing and specifications of building soared; domestic equipment was a convert and technical advances brought supplies of piped water, gas, and – by the end of the nineteenth century – electricity.
- Domestic comfort counted on many hands making light work of heavy housework, so slave power was essential to a smoothly run household – all but the very poorest of homes had a resident maid to help with home duties.
The Edwardian Era
- After Queen Victoria’s death, her eldest son Prince Edward VII instantly mounted to the seat.
- His short-lived reign lasted only nine years (1901 to 1910) but the Edwardian era is seen by most historiographers to consist of both his reign as Prince of Wales (starting from 1880 when he rose to fame given Queen Victoria’s vacancy from the public) until the start of the First World War in 1914.
- Although the Edwardian Era was comparatively short-term, it has become commonly known as the years when arts and crafts developed in Britain. This is also the last British era to be named after the governing king of the time.
FAQ’s About 19Th Century Britain
What Was Britain Like In The 19Th Century?
The 19Th Century Life Was Transformed By The Industrial Revolution. At First, It Caused Many Problems But In The Late, 19Th Century Life Became More Comfortable For Ordinary People. Meanwhile, Britain Became The World’s First Urban Society. By 1851 More Than Half The Population Lived In Towns.
What Major Events Happened In The 19Th Century?
- Napoleonic Wars.
- Latin American Independence.
- Revolutions Of 1848.
- Abolition And The American Civil War.
- Decline Of The Ottoman Empire.
- China: Taiping Rebellion.
- Japan: Meiji Restoration.
What Type Of Government Did England Have In The 19Th Century?
Some Historians In The 19Th And Early 20Th Centuries Saw British History As An Inevitable Progression – From Tyranny And Monarchy To Constitutional Monarchy And Democracy.
How Was Life In 19Th Century?
Lower, Middle And Upper Classes
By The Late 19Th Century, All Kinds Of People Lived In The Cities. Laborers And Servants Were The Most Numerous. Although Some Became Better-off, Many Were Still Poor. They Lived In Cramped, Decaying Houses, Known As Slums.
What Was Life Like In 19Th Century London?
While The City Grew Wealthy As Britain’s Holdings Expanded, 19Th Century London Was Also A City Of Poverty, Where Millions Lived In Overcrowded And Unsanitary Slums. Life For The Poor Was Immortalized By Charles Dickens In Such Novels As Oliver Twist.