Acids and bases are very important in chemistry. They are used to describe the oxidation state of an atom or molecule. An acid is something that gives up electrons, while a base is something that accepts electrons.
Using a pH scale, it’s possible to evaluate how acidic or basic a substance is. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14: substances with low pH are more acidic and have more hydrogen ions (H+), while substances with high pH are more basic and have fewer H+ ions. If you mix equal volumes of an acid and a base, they’re said to be “neutralized.”
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What Are Acids?
Acids are compounds that have a sour taste, react with metals to produce hydrogen gas, and turn blue litmus paper red. Acids can be found in many foods and drinks, including lemons, vinegar, soda water, and battery acid. Moreover, acids turn litmus paper red and have a pH of less than 7.0.
Many acids act as “oxidizing” agents; they react with other substances to release oxygen as a byproduct of the reaction. For example:
2HCl + Mg(s) → MgCl2 + H2(g)
In this reaction, HCl is an acid. It reacts with Mg(s), or magnesium metal, to produce magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and hydrogen gas (H2).
The most common acids are hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), carbonic acid (H2CO3), and others.
Read also – Carboxylic Acid – Definition, Compounds & More
What Are Bases?
Bases are substances that can donate a pair of electrons to another substance. This means that bases have an excess of hydrogen ions. Bases can be described as having a pH higher than 7, which makes them basic. Bases are substances that convert red litmus into blue.
Bases are chemicals that produce hydroxide ions, or OH- ions, when dissolved in water. They have a pH greater than 7, hence the name “base.” Bases are usually found in the form of alkaline solutions.
The most common example of a base is sodium hydroxide (NaOH). When mixed with water, it produces a strong alkaline solution that can be used to clean and disinfect surfaces.
The most common bases are the hydroxides of the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)).
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Interaction Between Acids and Bases
Acids and bases are chemical substances that react with each other to create water. The chemical reaction between acids and bases is called a neutralization reaction. The products of this reaction are a salt and water. The resulting solution has a pH of 7.
The interaction between acids and bases in the human body can be lethal if not treated properly. For example, if someone accidentally ingests hydrochloric acid (a strong acid), they need to be given an antacid like sodium bicarbonate (a base) immediately to offset the effects on their internal organs.
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Acids and Bases in the Context of Human Health
Acids and bases are compounds that can affect our pH level. This can be important because it affects the way our body functions. For example, if you have too much acidity in your body, it can damage your teeth and bones over time.
When acids and bases react with one another, they form salts called conjugate acids or bases. For example, sodium chloride (NaCl) is formed when hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
The human body contains many different acids and bases, some essential for normal function and others harmful when present in excess amounts. For example:
- The stomach contains hydrochloric acid to digest food; however, too much can result in ulcers or other stomach problems.
- The lungs contain carbon dioxide (CO2) for respiration; however, too much CO2 can cause suffocation due to a lack of oxygen supply within blood vessels.
As per the National Library of Medicine, the maintenance of an optimal acid-base balance is necessary for the proper functioning of practically all physiological systems in the body.
In summary, acids and bases are crucial to the chemistry of the human body. Acids are important for digestion, while bases help keep your pH levels balanced. In addition, acids and bases are important in many industrial processes, such as metal extraction and chemical production.
The next time you’re studying chemistry, remember that the terms “acid” and “base” aren’t just abstract concepts—their balance has real implications for your health.