# Deductive Reasoning: Definition, Examples & More

Deductive reasoning represents an important form of logical reasoning that is widely applied in many different industries and valued by employers. This kind of reasoning sometimes is referred to as top-down thinking or moving from the general to the specific. By highlighting your deductive reasonings throughout your job search, you can show employers you know how to use logic to benefit the organization. Deductive reasoning, or deductive logic, is a type of argument used in both academia and everyday life. Also known as a deduction, the process involves following one or more factual statements (i.e. premises) through to their logical conclusion.

In a deductive argument, if all the premises are true, and the terms correctly applied, then it holds that the conclusion will also be true. This is alternatively referred to as “top-down” logic because it usually starts with a general statement and ends with a narrower, specific conclusion. The general principles of deductive reasoning date back to the Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle. Deductive reasoning is also at the heart of mathematics and computer programming.

## Deductive Reasoning Definition/Deductive Reasoning Definition

Deductive reasoning is the process of drawing a conclusion based on premises that are generally assumed to be true. Also called deductive logic, this act uses a logical premise to reach a logical conclusion. Deductive reasonings are often referred to as top-down reasoning. If something is assumed to be true and another thing relates to the first assumption, then the original truth must also hold true for the second thing.

For example, if a car’s trunk is large and a bike does not fit into the trunk, then you may assume the bike must also be large. We know this because we were already provided with the information we assume to be true the trunk is large. Based on our deductive reasoning skills, we know if a bike does not fit in an already large trunk, then it must also be large. So long as the two premises are based on accurate information, the outcome of this type of conclusion is often true.

### Inductive Vs Deductive Reasoning

#### Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasonings are a basic form of valid reasoning. Deductive reasoning, or deduction, start out with a general statement, or hypothesis, and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion, according to California State University. The scientific method uses deduction to test hypotheses and theories. “In deductive inference, we hold a theory, and based on it we make a prediction of its consequences. That is, we predict what the observations should be if the theory were correct. We go from the general the theory to the specific the observations,” said Dr. Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, a researcher and professor emerita at Albert Einstein College of Medicine.

Deductive reasonings usually follow steps. First, there is a premise, then a second premise, and finally an inference. A common form of deductive reasoning is the syllogism, in which two statements a major premise and a minor premise reach a logical conclusion. For example, the premise “Every A is B” could be followed by another premise, “This C is A.” Those statements would lead to the conclusion “This C is B.” Syllogisms are considered a good way to test deductive reasoning to make sure the argument is valid. For example, “All men are mortal. Harold is a man. Therefore, Harold is mortal.” For deductive reasoning to be sound, the hypothesis must be correct. It is assumed that the premises, “All men are mortal” and “Harold is a man” are true. Therefore, the conclusion is logical and true. In deductive reasoning, if something is true of a class of things in general, it is also true for all members of that class.

According to California State University, deductive inference conclusions are certainly provided the premises are true. It’s possible to come to a logical conclusion even if the generalization is not true. If the generalization is wrong, the conclusion may be logical, but it may also be untrue. For example, the argument, “All bald men are grandfathers. Harold is bald. Therefore, Harold is a grandfather,” is valid logically but it is untrue because the original statement is false.

#### Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning is the opposite of deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning makes broad generalizations from specific observations. Basically, there is data, then conclusions are drawn from the data. This is called inductive logic, according to Utah State University. “In inductive inference, we go from the specific to the general. We make many observations, discern a pattern, make a generalization, and infer an explanation or a theory,” Wassertheil-Smoller told Live Science. “In science, there is a constant interplay between inductive inference (based on observations) and deductive inference (based on theory), until we get closer and closer to the ‘truth,’ which we can only approach but not ascertain with complete certainty.”

An example of inductive logic is, “The coin I pulled from the bag is a penny. That coin is a penny. A third coin from the bag is a penny. Therefore, all the coins in the bag are pennies.” Even if all of the premises are true in a statement, inductive reasoning allows for the conclusion to be false. Here’s an example: “Harold is a grandfather. Harold is bald. Therefore, all grandfathers are bald.” The conclusion does not follow logically from the statements. Inductive reasoning has its place in the scientific method. Scientists use it to form hypotheses and theories. Deductive reasoning allows them to apply the theories to specific situations.

### Hypothetico-deductive Reasoning

Hypothetico deductive reasoning is the ability to think scientifically through generating predictions, or hypotheses, about the world to answer questions. The individual will approach problems in a systematic and organized manner, rather than through trial-and-error. the abstract logical reasoning that, according to the Piagetian theory of cognitive development, emerges in early adolescence and marks the formal operational stage. hypothetico-deductive reasonings are

distinguished by the capacity for abstract thinking and hypothesis testing, which frees the adolescent from total reliance on concrete thinking and immediate perception.

### What Is An Example Of A Deductive Reasoning?

You Know That Neither Celery Nor Beans Are Fruits. Therefore, Granny Smith Has To Be Fruit. This Is An Example Of Syllogism, A Form Of Deductive Reasonings. Deductive Reasonings Is A Type Of Logic Where General Statements, Or Premises, Are Used To Form A Specific Conclusion.

### What Is The Difference Between Inductive And Deductive Reasoning?

This Is Because Inductive Reasoning Starts With A Conclusion And Deductive Reasonings Starts With A Premise. Therefore, Inductive Reasoning Moves From Specific Instances Into A Generalized Conclusion, While Deductive Reasoning Moves From Generalized Principles That Are Known To Be True To A True And Specific Conclusion.

### What Is An Example Of Inductive And Deductive Reasoning?

Inductive Reasoning Is The Opposite Of Deductive Reasonings. Inductive Reasoning Makes Broad Generalizations From Specific Observations. Basically, There Is Data, Then Conclusions Are Drawn From The Data. An Example Of Inductive Logic Is, “The Coin I Pulled From The Bag Is A Penny.

### What Is Inductive Reasoning?

Inductive Reasoning Is A Logical Process In Which Multiple Premises, All Believed True Or Found True Most Of The Time, Are Combined To Obtain A Specific Conclusion. Inductive Reasoning Is Often Used In Applications That Involve Prediction, Forecasting, Or Behavior.

### What Is Inductive And Deductive Thinking?

Deductive Reasonings Is The Process Of Reasoning From The General To The Specific. Inductive Reasoning Is The Process Of Reasoning From The Specific To The General. Inductive Reasoning Is Supported By Inductive Logic, For Example: From Specific Propositions Such As This Raven Is A Blackbird.