Types of Government – Government-A government is an institution or a system made of a group of people that takes care or manages a country or a state. Every government has its own constitution or a set of fundamental principles that it follows to ensure effective governance. Now when we say governance, what does that entail? How does it work? Once appointed or formed, the government is responsible for the social welfare, law and order, defense, and financial affairs of the country.
Here’s a rundown of the various forms of government, with definitions provided by “The World Factbook.” Absolute monarchy – a form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, i.e., without any laws, constitution, or legally organized opposition. Now that you are familiar with the basic responsibilities of the government, let’s understand who makes up the government. We all know that India is a democratic country. But there are many other countries that do not follow democracy. Let’s look at a few government types.
Types Of Government
In a democracy, a country’s people are involved in choosing its leader or head. The people are involved in the process of forming a government. They have the free will and right to vote for a party to come into power. The right to vote is not determined by wealth or class or race. In a democracy, there are different parties that have a manifesto or an idea about how a country should be governed. A democratic government is formed when a majority of people support a certain party as the ruling party or power.
Within democracy again, there are several forms of democracies such as a republic, a constitutional monarchy, a presidential system, or a parliamentary system.
An autocracy is a form of government where the supreme power or rule is in the hand of one individual or entity. People or external authorities have no say in the decisions of this individual or entity. Autocracy includes absolute monarchy where a family or a group of families, also known as royalty, rule a country. The post of the monarch is inherited in an absolute monarchy. In this system, the monarch’s power is not restricted by any laws or legislation. Some examples of the absolute monarchy are Saudi Arabia, Brunei, and Oman.
However, in recent times, there are constitutional monarchies, elected monarchies, or even crowned republics or symbolic monarchies. In a constitutional monarchy, the sovereign exercises its power in accordance with the written or unwritten constitution. An elective monarchy elects its head in contrast to hereditary monarchy. In a symbolic monarchy, the monarch has limited authority in constitutional matters. The monarchy is symbolic or ceremonial in nature.
Now autocracy also includes dictatorship. And there are two types of dictatorship—civilian dictatorship and military dictatorship. Civilian dictatorship is when absolute power is in the hands of a single civilian. This civilian can be an elected person, a monarch, or a dictator. Example of dictators includes the famous Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin, and Mao Zedong.
A military dictatorship is formed when the military takes control of power in a country. And there may be different reasons why the military seizes power from the ruling party. Sometimes, it is formed with the intention of saving people from corrupt politicians.
Oligarchy or Aristocracy
An oligarchy is a form of government where power or authority is in the hands of a small class of privileged people or people who have similar or shared interests. An oligarchy is different from democracy in the sense that very few people have the choice to vote or change anything. And it is different from a monarchy in the sense that power is in the hands of a few people and not a king.
Also, power is not inherited. There are several kinds of oligarchies such as aristocracy (rule by nobles), plutocracy (rule by wealth), timocracy (rule by an honorable), and technocracy (rule by technical experts or educated people).
Types Of Government Systems
a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority.
a form of government in which state authority is imposed onto many aspects of citizens’ lives.
a nation, state or other political entity founded on law and united by a compact of the people for the common good.
a system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and a single — often authoritarian — party holds power; state controls are imposed with the elimination of private ownership of property or capital while claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people (i.e., a classless society).
a government by or operating under an authoritative document (constitution) that sets forth the system of fundamental laws and principles that determines the nature, functions, and limits of that government.
a form of government in which the sovereign power of the people is spelled out in a governing constitution.
a system of government in which a monarch is guided by a constitution whereby his/her rights, duties, and responsibilities are spelled out in written law or by custom.
a form of government in which the supreme power is retained by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a system of representation and delegated authority periodically renewed.
a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them.
a form of government in which a ruler or small clique wields absolute power (not restricted by a constitution or laws).
a government administrated by a church.
similar to a monarchy or sultanate, a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of an emir (the ruler of a Muslim state); the emir may be an absolute overlord or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority.
a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided — usually by means of a constitution — between a central authority and a number of constituent regions (states, colonies or provinces) so that each region retains some management of its internal affairs; differs from a confederacy in that the central government exerts influence directly upon both individuals as well as upon the regional units.
a state in which the powers of the central government are restricted and in which the component parts (states, colonies, or provinces) retain a degree of self-government; ultimate sovereign power rests with the voters who chose their governmental representatives.
a particular form of government adopted by some Muslim states; although such a state is, in theory, a theocracy, it remains a republic, but its laws are required to be compatible with the laws of Islam.
the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism developed in China by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), which states that a continuous revolution is necessary if the leaders of a communist state are to keep in touch with the people.
the political, economic and social principles espoused by 19th-century economist Karl Marx; he viewed the struggle of workers as a progression of historical forces that would proceed from a class struggle of the proletariat (workers) exploited by capitalists (business owners), to a socialist “dictatorship of the proletariat,” to, finally, a classless society — Communism.
an expanded form of communism developed by Vladimir Lenin from doctrines of Karl Marx; Lenin saw imperialism as the final stage of capitalism and shifted the focus of workers’ struggle from developed to underdeveloped countries.
a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a monarch who reigns over a state or territory, usually for life and by hereditary right; the monarch may be either a sole absolute ruler or a sovereign – such as a king, queen or prince – with constitutionally limited authority.
a government in which control is exercised by a small group of individuals whose authority generally is based on wealth or power.
a political system in which the legislature (parliament) selects the government – a prime minister, premier or chancellor along with the cabinet ministers – according to party strength as expressed in elections; by this system, the government acquires a dual responsibility: to the people as well as to the parliament.
Parliamentary government (Cabinet-Parliamentary government)
a government in which members of an executive branch (the cabinet and its leader – a prime minister, premier or chancellor) are nominated to their positions by a legislature or parliament, and are directly responsible to it; this type of government can be dissolved at will by the parliament (legislature) by means of a no-confidence vote or the leader of the cabinet may dissolve the parliament if it can no longer function.
a state headed by a monarch who is not actively involved in policy formation or implementation (i.e., the exercise of sovereign powers by a monarch in a ceremonial capacity); true governmental leadership is carried out by a cabinet and its head – a prime minister, premier or chancellor – who are drawn from a legislature (parliament).
a system of government where the executive branch exists separately from a legislature (to which it is generally not accountable).
a representative democracy in which the people’s elected deputies (representatives), not the people themselves, vote on legislation.
a government in which the means of planning, producing and distributing goods is controlled by a central government that theoretically seeks a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor; in actuality, most socialist governments have ended up being no more than dictatorships over workers by a ruling elite.
similar to a monarchy, a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of a sultan (the head of a Muslim state); the sultan may be an absolute ruler or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority.
a form of government in which a Deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, the Deity’s laws are interpreted by ecclesiastical authorities (bishops, mullahs, etc.); a government subject to religious authority.
a government that seeks to subordinate the individual to the state by controlling not only all political and economic matters but also the attitudes, values, and beliefs of its population.
Types Of Government Chart
What are the 7 types of government?
- Democracy. A government where the majority makes the decisions by voting.
- Republic. A government where people choose other people to make decisions for us.
- Communism. A government where people are all “equal”.
- Autocracy. A government where one person makes all the rules.