When Was Africa Founded?: The word “Africa“ is an expressive one that craves up distinctive images for distinctive people. For some, it’s an ivory-tusked elephant status before the snow-capped tops of Mount Kilimanjaro; for others, it’s a fantasy shimmering on the prospect of the arid Sahara Desert. It’s also a powerful word – one that delivers of exploit and expedition, corruption and poverty, freedom and conundrum. For 1.2 billion people, the word “Africa“ is also compatible with the word “home” – but where does it come from? No-one knows for sure, but in this article, we take a look at a few of the most likely concepts.
Some believe that the word “Africa” appeared from the Romans, who named the land they unearthed on the antithetical side of the Mediterranean after a Berber tribe residing in the Carthage area (now modern-day Tunisia). Distinctive sources give different versions of the tribe’s term, but the most famous is Afri. It is assumed that the Romans called the region Afri-terra, meaning “the land of the Afri.“ Subsequently, this could have become contracted to form the single word “Africa.“
Alternatively, some historiographers recommend that the suffix “-ica“ could also have been adopted to mean “the land of the Afri,“ in much the same way that Celtica (a region of modern-day France) was named after the Celtae or Celts that lived there. It is also desirable that the name was a Roman misconception of the Berber’s own name for the place in which they lived.
MAP of Africa
Ancient Africa – Timeline
- 100 000 BC: Humans start to emigrate from Africa to other parts of the world.
- 8500 BC – 6500 BC: In the Sahara Desert land, the people evolve the use of pottery and use it for tools and dishes.
- 6000 BC: Agriculture advances in the Middle East with a target on barley and wheat. The domestication of sheep, goats, and cattle predates the agricultural revolution. The animals initiated to be used for meat, milk, and transport for the people. Later, donkeys also become naturalized, later spreading the practice to southwest Asia.
- 5000 BC: The continent is hit by a dry phase, drying up the Sahara region and beginning the population that established there to move away.
- 3500 BC: Two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt emerge into one.
- 3100 BC: Egypt is centralized into one political entity under the pharaoh, Narmer, who is the principal authority of the kingdom. This is respected as the First Dynasty. Bureaucracies became more centralized under the pharaoh’s government, run by viziers, tax collectors, generals, artists, and technicians. They enlisted in tax collecting and the organizing of labor for major public works such as the building of inundation systems and pyramids.
- 3100 BC: Ta-Seti (Nubian civilization), one of the first sacral dynasties in the Nile is raided by Egypt and dismantled during the First Dynasty. Smaller sacral kingdoms went on to exist but they soon became consolidated into larger kingdoms- two of which introduced the Kingdom of Sai and the Kingdom of Kerma. The Kingdom of Kerma came one of the Hyskos allies at the time they raided Egypt at the creation of the country’s Second Immediate Period.
- 3000 BC: By this time, the previous forms of literacy in the world, hieroglyphic writings of ancient Egypt are originated.
- 3000 BC – 2000 BC: Ancient Somalis domesticate camels. This process extends to North Africa and Ancient Egypt 2950 BC The first stone pyramid in Egypt is manufactured by an architect, Imhotep. It was manufactured at Saqqara, for the Third Dynasty’s King Djoser. It was made by raising several layers of stone on top of each other.
- 2575 BC: The Great Pyramids of Giza are manufactured and are honored as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
- 2181 BC – 2055 BC: The First Intermediate Period of Egypt occurs. The period ranged from the ninth to the eleventh empire and was marked by power distributions and civil wars. Two power bases, Heracleopolis (Lower Egypt) and Thebes (Upper Egypt) clashed for control of the region. The Thebes came out victorious and reunited Egypt under one ruler, during the eleventh dynasty. 2130 BC Camel Profile Image Source The Middle Kingdom materializes in Egypt.
- 2000 BC – 1000 BC: Herding is settled in southern Kenya and Tanzania
- 1580 BC – 1080 BC: The New Kingdom establishes in Egypt, bringing an end to the Second Intermediate Period and initiating in one of the nation’s most powerful pre-modern phases. With much political influence on the Mediterranean & Libya, the nation also gains control of Palestine and Nubia.
- 1000 BC: The enlargement of the Bantu people emerges. Bantu languages discovered in West Africa and went into a spread to other parts of Africa; especially Central, Southeast & Southern Africa. Experts consider that there are almost 250 to 525 Bantu languages in existence.
- 1000 BC: The Nok Culture, a highly centralized society of people, is established in central Nigeria. By 500 BC, iron-smelting had become common to the Nok and they contributed art in the form of lifelike animal and human figures. The Nok are considered to have departed by 200 BC but their influence is evident in the Yoruba Kingdom and Benin.
- 814 BC: The city of Carthage is established by Phoenicians from Tyre. The region became a dominant power and commerce entity in the Mediterranean.
- 760 BC: The Nubian Empire emerges. The Kingdom of Kush, possibly arising out of the Kingdom of Kerma (which rebelled for centuries after being preoccupied with the Egyptian Empire), invaded Egypt and took over Thebes. The Kushites were later evacuated from Nubia by the Assyrian forces. The region later became a center for cotton-cloth and iron manufacture.
- 730 BC: The Nubian Empire begins. The Empire of Kush, possibly rising out of the Kingdom of Kerma, which had renounced for centuries after being consumed into the Egyptian Empire, invaded Egypt & took over Thebes. The Kushites were later dislodged from Nubia by Assyrian forces. The region later became a center for cotton-cloth and iron manufacture.
- 525 BC: The Persians invade Egypt under Cambyses II. He beats the Egyptians in battle at Pelsium in the Nile Delta.
- 509 BC: The first known deal between Carthage and Rome is written. It describes the limitations to their commercial enterprises and their influence over neighboring sectors. The treaty is the earliest record indicating that Sardinia and Sicily were under Carthaginian control.
- 332 BC: Alexander the Great conquers Egypt. He takes up Egypt and his general, Ptolemy, becomes king and finds a dynasty. During this dynasty, Greek culture was developed throughout Egypt. The Great Lighthouse of Alexandria, in the city of Alexandria, became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
- 300 BC: The Meroitic alphabet restores Egyptian script in the influential region of Meroe. Made up of 23 characters, the alphabetic text was originally evolved from the Egyptian hieroglyphics.
- 300 BC: Djenne-Djenno, a town in modern-day Mali, is built. The town is one of the oldest urbanized centers known. It is correlated with thriving markets and agriculture, most particularly the domestication of African rice. The town is also recognized as being one of the earliest sites of iron manufacture in sub-Saharan Africa.
- 264 BC – 146 BC: A string of three wars (also known as the Punic Wars) between Carthage and the Roman Republic sees Carthage dismantled. Its province is renamed the Roman Province of Africa. the second of the wars (also known as the Hannibalic War) was one of the most remarkable of the Carthaginian military leader, Hannibal. Hannibal led his army from Iberia to Italy via the Alps. By the end of the three wars, Carthage was dismantled and the remaining citizens were sold to slavery, as was the rules of the time. This was the beginning of the Roman hegemony in northern Africa.
- 100 CE – 200 CE: After being ousted from Judea for rebelling against Roman rule, Jewish people arrive in Roman North Africa. the significant Jewish existence was indisputable and many Berber tribes transformed into the religion.
- 3RD Century CE: Christianity begins to take influence in Roman North Africa. The visitor of Christianity claimed the worship of Christ in a church rather than the use of state abilities to commemorate kings by their stelae. Swahili culture prepares to take shape because of the communication between the local Bantu speaking people and the Persian and Arab traders. The culture ultimately began developing in Tanzania and Kenya and thereafter to Mozambique.
- 4TH Century CE: King Ezana of Aksum is modified to Christianity by two Christian traders. This begins the installation of Ethiopian Christianity. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church granted the institutional support for the monarchy. The area of Great Zimbabwe is decided. The Ziwa and Gokomere communities kept by farming and mining the land. The area marks the earliest Iron Age deals recognized in the region. Great Zimbabwe would thereafter become the capital of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe and serve as the first city in Southern Africa. Ghana, the oldest Sudanic empire, is established. The empire prospered because of the tax revenues from the trans-Saharan trade, linking Sijilmase and Tiaret to Aoudaghost. The empire handled access to goldfields, even though it was not involved in manufacture. The empire also controlled access to all the salt and gold that went through its territory.
- 300 CE: The state of Aksum in Eritrea and Ethiopia begins fabricating its own silver and gold coins as their own Aksumite currency. The region was deeply contained in the trade network between India and the Mediterranean. The region shipped ivory, gold and agricultural commodities.
- 400 CE – 500 CE: The Khoisan speaking people’s language and customs are preoccupied with those of the Bantu speakers. The group is made up of two culturally disparate people, the Khoi and the San. The amaXhosa, the southernmost group of the Bantu speakers, took certain linguistic tricks from the Khoisan.
- 420 CE: Vandals invade North Africa, relieving Rome of her territories in the region. This results in the Berber Kingdom’s took back independence.
- 6TH Century CE: Aksum’s empire grows, adding the Arabian region of Saba to its territories. With trade routes deflected from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf, Aksum later denied and severely declined by 800CE. Aksum also slipped into a decline because of environmental degradation and changes in the global climate. Colonists from southeast Asia and later, from the east African mainland, settle in Madagascar. Banana and rice cultivation are suggested by the Asian settlers, while cattle and farming arts are suggested by the Bantu speaking east Africans.
- 7TH Century CE: Spanish Jews flee massacre under the Visigoths to North Africa, where they made their homes in the Byzantine controlled cities along the Mediterranean coast.
- 642 CE: Arab Muslims conquer Byzantine Egypt. Under the rule of the Fatimid Caliphate the country widened their cotton manufacture and developed economically. Minted gold coins announced the Fatimid dinar was used for global trade. Tax collection from farms proved lucrative for the Berber overlords – soldiers who had played in the Fatimid conquest – and to the caliphs of the time. During this time slave infantrymen were used in the military, made up of people from Sudan and Turkey.
- 711 CE: Arab Muslims have by this time seized the entire North African province and Islam becomes the major religion in the region by the 10th century.
- 969 CE: Fatimid Rulers seize Egypt and the Egyptian city Al-Qahirah (present-day Cairo), is founded.
- 9TH Century CE: Kanem is formed. Kanuri-speaking nomads founded the Sudanic Empire of Kanem, which obtained power through trans-Saharan trade. Slavery was practiced & slaves were secured from the south & traded for horses from North Africa. The Kingdom of Nri grows under the leadership of the Eze Nri. Democratically run, men and infrequently women in the Kingdom’s villages took part in decision-making developments.
- 10TH Century CE: Syrian Shi’ite parties discovered the Fatimid Dynasty in the Maghreb. The groups claimed descent from Muhammad’s daughter Fatima and had subdued Maghreb by 950 CE and Egypt by 969 CE. Sotho-Tswana states are composed on the Highveld, south of the Limpopo River. Large towns of thousands of people made up early Tswana states north-west of the Vaal River, with colonists quitting to start their own states over time. Indian and Arab trade settlement establish in northern Madagascar to take favor of the Indian Ocean trade. Islam was brought in by the traders.
- 1050 CE: almost 250 000 Arab Egyptian nomads fixed in the Maghreb, developing the Arab languages and subsidizing the decline of the Berber language. Berber soldiers revolt after-tax revenue from farms is diminished. Their brutal resistance destabilized the power of the Fatimid caliphs and decelerated trade in the region. Early ironworks are used in what is presently known as Kwa-Zulu Natal.
- 1415: The Portuguese conquer Ceuta in North Africa. It is the first European toehold in Africa.
- 1464-1491: Under its ruler Sunni Ali the kingdom of Songhai in west Africa conquers province and widens
- 1488: The Portuguese sail around the Cape of Good Hope.
- 1508: The Portuguese inaugurate to settle in Mozambique
- 1517: The Turks conquer Egypt
- 1518: Onward African laborers are displaced across the Atlantic by Europeans
- 1551: The Turks apprehension Tripoli
- 1562: England joins the laborer trade
- 1564: The Songhai Empire in west Africa dismantles the Empire of Mali
- 1575: The Portuguese prepare to settle in Angola
- 1581: The Moroccans begin to spread across the Sahara
- 1590: The Moroccans apprehension Timbuktu
- 1591: The Moroccans dismantle the Empire of Songhai
- 1652: The Dutch found a colony in South Africa
- 1700: The rising of the Ashanti kingdom in West Africa
- 1787: The British unearthed a colony for rescued slaves in Sierra Leone
- 1792: Denmark prohibits the slave trade
- 1795-1797: Mungo Park analyzes the River Niger 19th Century Africa
- 1806: The Dutch colony in South Africa converts a British colony
- 1807: Sierra Leone and Gambia become British crown colonies Britain prohibits the slave trade
- 1808: The USA prohibits the slave trade
- 1822: The USA founds a colony for rescued slaves in Liberia
- 1828: Shaka King of the Zulus is killed
- 1830: The French invade Algeria. Over the following years the French form up an empire in North Africa
- 1847: Liberia becomes sovereign
- 1855: David Livingstone unearths the Victoria Falls
- 1858: John Speke discovers Lake Victoria
- 1859-1869: The Suez Canal is started in Egypt
- 1879: The Zulus beat the British at Isandlwana but they are overthrown at Ulundi
- 1880-1881: Warfare between the British and Boers (Dutch-speaking farmers) in South Africa
- 1882: The British army takes up Egypt and Sudan
- 1884: The Germans take Namibia, Tanzania, Togo, and Cameroon The Mahdi heads an anti-British uprising in Sudan
- 1885: Italy takes Eritrea, Belgium takes The Republic of Congo and Britain takes Botswana The Mahdi occupies Khartoum and British general Gordon is murdered
- 1886: Kenya becomes a British colony Gold is unearthed in Transvaal
- 1888-89: The British take jurisdiction of Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
- 1894: The British take Uganda
- 1896: The Italians raid Ethiopia but are beaten by the Ethiopians
- 1898: The British beat the Sudanese at the battle of Omdurman
- 1910: The Union of South Africa comes independently from Britain
- 1912: Italy conquers Libya
- 1935-36: Italy conquers Ethiopia
- 1941: The British drive the Italians out of Ethiopia
- 1942: The British beat the Germans and Italians at El Alamein in Egypt
- 1943: German and Italian authorities in North Africa surrender
- 1948: Apartheid is brought in in South Africa
- 1951: Libya converts independent
- 1952-55: The Mau Mau revolution in Kenya captures a place
- 1956: Morocco and Sudan become independent. So does Tunisia Oil is unearthed in Nigeria
- 1957: Ghana comes independent
- 1960: Senegal comes independent The Sharpeville massacre in South Africa
- 1962: Uganda comes independently. So does Algeria.
- 1963: Kenya becomes independent
- 1964: Zambia and Malawi become independent. The state of Tanzania is developed.
- 1965: the Gambia becomes independent
- 1966: Botswana becomes independent
- 1967: Diamonds are unearthed in Botswana
- 1967-70: Civil War in Nigeria
- 1969: Colonel Gaddafi captures power in Libya
- 1971: Idi Amin seizes power in Uganda
- 1974: Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia is dismissed
- 1975: Angola and Mozambique become independent
- 1979: Amin is dethroned
- 1980: Robert Mugabe becomes prime minister of Zimbabwe
- 1990: Namibia becomes independent
- 1993: Eritrea becomes independent
- 1994: Nelson Mandela becomes the leader of South Africa Ethnic massacres in Rwanda
- 1997: Zaire is renamed the Democratic Republic of Congo
- 1999: Thabo Mbeki becomes president of South Africa
- 2013: The recessions of African countries are growing rapidly. The continent is progressing fast.
Africa Before and After Slavery
- In the 16th century Europeans prepared to transport African slaves across the Atlantic. However, slavery was extinction new in Africa. For centuries Africans had sold dissimilar Africans to the Arabs as slaves. However, the trans-Atlantic slave deal widened until it was huge.
- In the 18th century ships from Britain took produced goods to Africa. They took slaves from there to the West Indies and took sugar back to Britain. This was labeled the Triangular Trade. (Many other European countries were engaged in the slave trade). Some Africans were handled into slavery because they had engaged in a crime.
- However many slaves were apprehended in raids by other Africans. Europeans were not granted to proceed inland to find slaves. Instead, Africans carried slaves to the coastline. Any slaves who were not auctioned were either killed or used as slaves by other Africans.
- The slave trade would have been inaccessible without the co-operation of Africans many of whom raised rich on the slave trade. Meanwhile from the 16th to the 18th centuries Barbary pirates from the North African coast robbed Spanish and Portuguese ships.
- In the 16th century, a people announced the Turks subdue most of the North African coast. In 1517 they secured Egypt and by 1556 most of the shore was in their hands. Further south Africans went on to set up powerful kingdoms.
- The empire of Kanem-Bornu expanded in the 16th century using guns purchased from the Turks. However, in the 16th century, Ethiopia denied in power and importance although it survived.
- Meanwhile the Europeans established their first colonies in Africa. In the 16th century, the Portuguese settled in Angola and Mozambique while in 1652 the Dutch formed a colony in South Africa.
- In the 19th century European states worked to stop the slave trade. Britain prohibited the slave trade in 1807. On the other part in the late 19th century Europeans conquer most of Africa! In 1814 the British won the Dutch colony in South Africa. In 1830 the French raided northern Algeria.
- However, colonization only came major in the late 19th century when Europeans ‘carved up’ Africa. In 1884 the Germans won Namibia, Togo, and Cameroon and in 1885 they captured Tanzania. In 1885 Belgium took over what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo.
- The French took Madagascar in 1896. They also widened their empire in northern Africa. In 1912 they took Morocco and Italy took Libya.
- In 1914 the British received control of Egypt. By then all of Africa was in European holds except Liberia and Ethiopia. (The Italians control Ethiopia in 1896 but they were overthrown by the Ethiopians).
- Further south the British won Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi, Uganda, and Kenya. The British also took the handle of Egypt. Angola and Mozambique hovered Portuguese. However in the early 20th century perspective to imperialism started to change in Europe.
- Furthermore in Africa churches granted schools and increasing numbers of Africans came educated. They shifted impatiently for independence. The movement for African independence embellished unstoppable and in the late 1950s and 1960s, most African countries converted independently.
- In 1960 alone 17 countries obtained their independence. However, Mozambique and Angola did not come independently until 1975.
- In the early 21st century Africa moved to boom. Today the economies of most African countries are developing speedily. Tourism in Africa is developing and investment is streaming into the continent. Africa is developing rapidly and there is every logic to be optimistic.
FAQ’s About Exploration Of Africa
When Was Africa First Discovered?
15Th Century: European Exploration Of Sub-saharan Africa Begins With The Age Of Discovery In The 15Th Century, Pioneered By Portugal Under Henry The Navigator.
What Was The Original Name Of Africa?
Alkebulan: In Kemetic History Of Afrika, Dr. Cheikh Anah Diop Writes, “The Ancient Name Of Africa Was Alkebulan. Alkebu-lan “Mother Of Mankind” Or “Garden Of Eden”.” Alkebulan Is The Oldest And The Only Word Of Indigenous Origin. It Was Used By The Moors, Nubians, Numidians, Khart-Haddans (Carthaginians), And Ethiopians.
Was Africa The First Continent?
Africa Is Considered By Most Paleoanthropologists To Be The Oldest Inhabited Territory On Earth, With The Human Species Originating From The Continent. During The Mid-20Th Century, Anthropologists Discovered Many Fossils And Evidence Of Human Occupation Perhaps As Early As 7 Million Years Ago (Bp=Before Present).
Who First Invaded Africa?
North Africa Experienced Colonization From Europe And Western Asia In The Early Historical Period, Particularly Greeks And Phoenicians. Under Egypt’s Pharaoh Amasis (570–526 Bc) A Greek Mercantile Colony Was Established At Naucratis, Some 50 Miles From The Later Alexandria.